In order to immigrate to the USA, you first need to figure out which type of Green Card you can qualify for. Most individuals become eligible if they are sponsored by an employer or family member. The different types of immigrant visas in the USA range from family, employment and humanitarian to diversity lottery, and long-time resident Green Cards. There are many other Green Cards in addition to these.
Generally, after deciding which Green Card suits you best, you will need to have an immigration petition filed by someone else for you. Most Green Card requirements include a background check and a medical exam. There will also be requirements based on the type of Green Card you are applying for. A detailed list of specifications may be obtained here.
After submitting your Green Card application, it will be processed by your local U.S. embassy. This is known as consular processing. When a decision has been made, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will notify you. If the petition has been approved, it will be transferred to the Department of State’s National Visa Center (NVC) and will remain there until your immigration visa number is ready.
When the NVC notifies you about the visa number’s availability, you will be scheduled for an interview with the consular office. During this interview, they will assess your case and reach a decision regarding your eligibility for an immigrant visa.
If your visa is granted, you will have to pay a USCIS Immigrant Fee. Afterwards, your Green Card will be mailed to you after you have arrived in the USA.
An in-depth outline of the immigration process may be obtained here.